Immune Peptides

Thymosin Alpha 1
Thymosin a-1 is a major component of Thymosin Fraction 5 and responsible for restoring immune function, particularly cell mediated immune function. Recent studies showed that the Thymosin alpha-1 molecule increased major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class-1 and Toll-like receptor expression as well as cytokine production, suggesting its immunoregulatory role.

The drug is in Phase III trials for the treatment of hepatitis C and in Phase II trials for hepatitis B. Additional possible indications are malignant melanoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, drug-resistant tuberculosis, and Di George’s syndrome as well as any chronic cancer or viral disease. Some physicians are using thymosin for chronic fatigue and Lyme disease as well.

TA1 is thought to modulate the immune system by augmenting T-cell function. TA1 may affect thymocytes by stimulating their differentiation or by converting them to active T cells. TA1 is rapidly absorbed, achieving peak serum concentrations within two hours. Blood levels return to baseline within 24 hours, and the serum half-life is approximately 2 hours.

Thymosin Beta 4
Thymosin is a hormone secreted from the thymus. Its primary function is to stimulate the production of T cells, which are an important part of the immune system. Thymosin also assists in the development of B cells to plasma cells to produce antibodies. The predominant form of thymosin, thymosin b4, is a member of a highly conserved family of actin monomer-sequestering proteins. In addition to its role as a major actin-sequestering molecule, Thymosin-beta4 has a role intissue repair. Tß4 has been found to play an important role in protection, regeneration and remodeling of injured or damaged tissues. The gene for Tß4 has also been found to be one of the first to be unregulated after injuries. Thymosin Beta 4 is currently being trialed as a potential therapy for HIV, AIDS, and Influenza.

Thymulin is a neuroendocrine hormone with immunoregulatory actions. Originally known as ‘serum thymic factor’ (FTS), thymulin binds to a carrier protein and zinc (Zn2+) to exert its biologic properties. Thymulin, albeit an essential hormone for the T lymphocyte differentiation and the normalization of the ratio of T-helper cells to suppressor cells, accumulating evidence suggests its involvement in inflammations of various etiologies. Recently, thymulin has been shown to have anti-nociceptive effects in hyperalgesia and in pain of neurogenic origin, ostensibly through action on sensory afferents and the release of anti-inflammatory mediators. Given its anti-inflammatory potential, thymulin downregulates the release of inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, upregulates anti-inflammatory factors, such as interleukin (IL)-10, and exerts molecular control via the regulation of transcription factors and mediators. Recent evidence tends to indicate that thymulin can be a therapeutic agent in many inflammatory diseases and in pathological conditions affecting the peripheral and/or the central nervous system.

Epitalon is considered the “fountain of youth” peptide. It is a tetra-peptide, which means that it is composed of four amino acid chains. The peptide is used to regulate the cell cycle during telomerase activity. Telomerase, also called telomere terminal transferase, is an enzyme made of protein and RNA subunits that elongates chromosomes. When telomerase activity is not present (when we age), our cells age. Our telomeres get shorter and begin to die off. If telomerase is activated in our cells, our telomeres lengthen, the cell continues to grow and divide, delaying the aging process. (UT Southwestern Medical Lab) Epitalon was discovered by the Russian scientist Professor Vladimir Khavinson. He researched this peptide of over 35 years in both animal and human clinical trials. The results were astounding. For the first time ever, human clinical trials proved beyond doubt that the substance consisted of powerful life extension and anti-aging possibilities.

Epitalon Peptide therapy can increase human lifespan, delay/prevent age-related diseases, boost energy levels, promote deeper sleep, improve skin health and appearance, and heal deteriorated/injured muscle cells.

Epitalon works in the pineal gland of the brain. Its primary role is to increase the natural production of telomerase, a natural enzyme that helps cells reproduce telomeres, which are the protective parts of our DNA. This allows the replication of our DNA, so the body can grow new cells and rejuvenate old ones. It has shown a 33% increase in telomere length in somatic cells. It has many documented effects on general aging and impacts on the circadian rhythm. It promotes a natural cycle and healthy sleep cycles, it also makes sure that cortisol and other stress hormones are not elevated throughout the day, which can lead to excess abdominal weight gain. It helps regulate levels of melatonin and cortisol. It helps make sure cortisol is elevated in the morning and melatonin is elevated in the evening.

Regenerative Peptides

BPC-157Order yours today:
Pentadecapeptide BPC 157, composed of 15 amino acids, is a partial sequence of body protection compound (BPC) that is discovered in and isolated from human gastric juice. Experimentally it has been demonstrated to accelerate the healing of many different wounds, including tendon-to-bone healing and superior healing of damaged ligaments. In addition, BPC 157 seems to protect organs and to prevent ulcers of the stomach. This peptide is also shown to decrease pain in damaged areas. Those who suffer from discomfort due to muscle sprains, tears and damage may benefit from treatment with this peptide. It can also help aid skin burns to heal at a faster rate and increase blood flow to damaged tissues.

Thymosin Beta 4
Thymosin is a hormone secreted from the thymus. Its primary function is to stimulate the production of T cells, which are an important part of the immune system. Thymosin also assists in the development of B cells to plasma cells to produce antibodies. The predominant form of thymosin, thymosin b4, is a member of a highly conserved family of actin monomer-sequestering proteins. In addition to its role as a major actin-sequestering molecule, Thymosin-beta4 has a role intissue repair. Tß4 has been found to play an important role in protection, regeneration and remodeling of injured or damaged tissues. The gene for Tß4 has also been found to be one of the first to be unregulated after injuries. Thymosin Beta 4 is currently being trialed as a potential therapy for HIV, AIDS, and Influenza.

Neurocognitive Peptides

Selank which was developed in Russia, is a short peptide with nootropic and anxiolytic properties. It is a synthetic analogue of naturally occurring Tuftsin, an immunomodulatory peptide that modulates IL-6, T helper cells, monoamine neurotransmitters, and brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF). In fact, Selank and Tuftsin are essentially the same except that Selank has an additional four amino acids in its chain that help to improve metabolic stability and half-life.

Numerous clinical studies have shown that Selank has strong anti-anxiety and neuroprotective effects in the treatment of anxiety. The clinical effects of Selank are similar to those of classical anti-anxiety medications such as benzodiazepines, which are allosteric modulators of GABAA receptors and increase the inhibitory action of GABA. Selank’s effects include reducing anxiety, improving mood, lower stress levels, and positively influencing memory and learning. Unlide benzodiazepines, Selank does not appear to be habit-forming and does not lead to symptoms of withdrawl or amnesia.

Significantly improves memory and attention under extreme conditions of activities. Improves recovery of stroke clinically and by EEG Neuroprotective- helps with glutamate toxicity, has a high affinity for copper and may be a chelating agent

Cerebrolysin is currently a drug approved in 44 countries, including Austria, China, Germany, Russia and South Korea, for treatment of dementia, stroke and TBI. It is a synthetic nootropicdrug that consists of low-molecular peptides and possesses neuroprotective and neurotrophic repair properties. The active fragment of cerebrolysin is made of proteins which molecular masses do not exceed 10.000 daltons, so they can penetrate blood-brain (or blood-SCF) barrier and reach neurons directly which in turn makes the drug to be able to show organo-specific combined effects towards brain. Cerebrolysin has been proven to have neurotrophic action similar to nerve growth factors causing peripheral and central neuronal stimulation. It improves efficiency within the brain’s aerobic metabolic processes and improves intracellular peptide synthesis. The neuroprotective properties of this nootropic agent help to shield neurons from lactocidosis, to prevent formation of free radicals and to decrease neurotoxic action of certain amino acids.

Dihexa is an oligopeptide drug derived from angiotensin IV that binds with high affinity to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and potentiates its activity at its receptor, c-Met. Dihexa is a nooptropic and a small peptide that has been developed by researchers from Washington State University to potently improve certain cognitive function of potential trauma-based brain disorders and neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s through increased synaptogenesis. In an assay of neurotrophic activity, Dihexa was found to be seven orders of magnitude more potent than brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Dihexa has also been called a “neurogenic wonder-drug” and the drug can be ten million times stronger than BDNF (Brain-derived neurotrophic factor), one of the leading medications for new synapse formation.Unlike current Alzheimer’s treatments which either slow the process of cell death or inhibit cholinesterase, an enzyme believed to break down a key neurotransmitter involved in learning and memory development, Dihexa is a neuropeptide that is intended to repair brain damage that has already occurred. Dihexa (N-hexanoic-Tyr-Ile-(6) aminohexanoic amide) is a neuropeptide that has been shown to dramatically improve cognitive function in animal models of Alzheimer’s disease-like mental impairment. FGL (l) FGL(I) is a peptide with neurotrophic and memory enhancing properties. FGL peptide is a variant of the natural neural cell adhesion molecule. Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is a membrane-bound glycoprotein expressed on the surface of neuronal and glial cells. FGL(L) was directly created as a fibroblast growth factor receptor agonist. FG loop (FGL) peptide, that is derived from the second F3 module of NCAM has been found to activate FGFR1. Activating the NCAM–FGFR signaling pathways result in increased neurite outgrowth and survival and leads to its effects in memory. In addition to its effects on memory, FGL was found to have a positive impact on the healing of neuronal tissues subjected to ischemia by decreasing oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death. FGL was also demonstrated to affect neuropathological symptoms related to Alzheimer’s disease by inhibiting neuronal degeneration and death. Its potential effect on memory and neurodegenerative disease progression have excited many people and it was awarded a 60 million dollar grant in 2016 for further exploration. In addition to its effects on neurodegenerative disease, it also has been viewed as a targeted treatment for TBI, stroke, depression, and general improvement of cognitive function.

Anti-Microbial Peptides

LL-37 is the only known human cathelicidin, which is a large protein family with diverse function. These peptides, which are primarily found in macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (both types of white blood cell), are important for killing bacteria, but have been found to have other dramatic effects as well. The enite class is often referred to as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). LL-37 has been found to play important roles in autoimmune disease, cancer, and wound healing.

LL-37 while primarily billed as an anti-microbial peptide, actually plays a role in a number of inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and atherosclerosis. Depending on the local inflammatory environment and the particular cells involved, LL-37 has several different immune system modulating behaviors. It has been found to decrease keratinocyte apoptosis, increase IFN-alpha production, alter chemotaxis of neutrophils and eosinophils, down-regulate signaling through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and increase IL-18 production.

LL-37 does not always affect the immune system in the same way all of the time. Research in cell culture has shown that the inflammatory environment affects how the cells of the immune system respond to LL-37. T-cells, for instance, will increase their inflammatory actions in response to LL-37 when they are not activated but decrease inflammatory action when already activated. It appears that LL-37 has potent homeostatic effects, helping to balance the immune response and prevent it from becoming overactive in the setting of infection. These findings would suggest that LL-37 could play a role in helping to regulate the unchecked inflammation of autoimmune disease.

Weight/Muscle Gain

AOD 9604
AOD 9604 is a modified form of amino acids 176-191 of the GH polypeptide. Investigators at Monash University discovered that the fat-reducing effects of GH appear to be controlled by a small region near one end of the GH molecule. This region, which consists of amino acids 176-191, is less than 10% of the total size of the GH molecule and appears to have no effect on growth or insulin resistance. It works by mimicking the way natural Growth Hormone regulates fat metabolism but without the adverse effects on blood sugar or growth that is seen with unmodified Growth Hormone. Like Growth Hormone, AOD 9604 stimulates lipolysis (the breakdown or destruction of fat) and inhibits lipogenesis (the transformation of nonfat food materials into body fat) both in laboratory testing and in animals and humans. Recent findings have shown, in addition to its fat loss properties, AOD 9604 processes many other regenerative properties associated with growth hormone. Currently trials are underway to show the application of AOD 9604 in osteoarthritis, hypercholesterolemia, bone and cartilage repair. AOD 9604 has an excellent safety profile, recently obtaining Human GRAS status in the USA.

CJC 1295
CJC 1295 is often prescribed by physicians as a growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) analog. CJC 1295 has been shown potentially to increase growth hormone and IGF-I secretion and effects, but it has been able to do so in very large amounts. CJC 1295 Stimulates Growth Hormone Secretion, and will keep a steady increase of HGH and IGF-1 with no increase in prolactin, leading to fat loss, and increased protein synthesis thereby promoting growth.

One of the reasons CJC 1295 may be prescribed over traditional GHRH or rHGH is its ability to bioconjugate with serum albumin, thus increasing its half-life and potential therapeutic window. It accomplishes this by using protecting groups around the amino acids of GHRH typically susceptible to enzymatic degradation.

CJC 1295 can be compounded in two forms (DAC and non-DAC). Drug affinity complex (DAC) is designed to prevent enzymatic degradation thus increasing the half-life. Consequently CJC 1295- DAC is often prescribed by physicians to be dosed as a single weekly injection. Administration of CJC 1295-DAC is designed to provide a GHRH-like stimulation around the clock. A potential drawback when using a weekly protocol can be attributed to ineffective GHRH stimulation when the body is due for a GH spike (usually 1:00am). This is referred to as a GH-bleed and the overall result is inferior to using CJC 1295-NON-DAC daily for 5 days out of 7. Therefore using CJC 1295- NON-DAC daily (between 6-8pm) provides a more effective GH spike at 1:00am.

Tesamorelin is a growth hormone releasing hormone analog that has been shown to increase IGF-1 levels in men by an average of 181 micrograms/liter. It binds and stimulates human GHRH receptors with similar potency as endogenous GHRH. It has a host of other benefits including nootropic effects and reducing triglycerides. Tesamorelin has subsequently been shown to decrease carotid intima media thickness (cIMT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and C-reactive proteins (CRP) in a recent study. It has not been shown to significantly affect otherpituitary hormones and their respective mechanisms in the body. Additionally, it has been shown to improve cognitive function for healthy older adults and also for people with mild cognitive impairment who are at an increased risk of progressing to Alzheimer’s disease.

Ipamorelin, a synthetic peptide derived from GHRP-1, is made up of five amino acids. Ipamorelin is a powerful growth hormone releasing peptide and is capable of causing potent growth hormone release. Ipamorelin stimulates the release of growth hormone by activating the ghrelin receptor found in the brain. Activating this receptor and increasing the levels of growth hormone within the body can modulate food intake and energy metabolism and also influences glucose and fat metabolism. Growth hormone secretion also increases appetite and causes increased lean muscle growth. Ipamorelin has been demonstrated to be a highly specific growth hormone stimulator since it does not lead to increases in prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, or thyroid-stimulating hormone. Furthermore, the peptide does not cause adrenocorticotropic

hormone or cortisol stimulation. Therefore, compared to other growth hormone stimulators, such as GHRP-2 and GHRP-6, ipamorelin is a more specific growth hormone stimulator. This means that ipamorelin does not possess lipogenic properties and it does not promote hunger. Furthermore, it is at least as potent as GHRP-6 and almost as potent as GHRP-2. Animal studies have shown that ipamorelin can counteract a reduction in bone and muscle strength [5]. In human trials, ipamorelin was shown to induce substantial and dose dependent growth hormone release in healthy males. Another human study also determined that ipamorelin strongly induces growth hormone release over a range of doses and that the half-life of the peptide is two hours. In summary, ipamorelin is a potent growth hormone stimulator that does not broadly affect additional biochemical pathways like some other GHRPs. The optimal way to use ipamorelin is to stack it with low doses of other growth hormone releasing peptides, such as GHRP-2, GHRP-6 or hexarelin. Combining a low dose of ipamorelin with an additional GHRP will increase the pulse of human growth hormone. Ipamorelin should be reconstituted in BAC water and injected subcutaneously or intramuscularly at a dosage of 200 mcg. Ipamorelin can be dosed once or twice daily and dosages should be spread out over the course of 24 hours. Ipamorelin has been acutely administered to humans at 100 mcg/kg with no adverse effects reported. The peptide has also been administered at 30 mcg/kg twice daily for up to 7 days and was well tolerated [8]. The highly specific actions of ipamorelin give it a positive safety profile and side effects when using ipamorelin at the recommended dose are generally minimal, although headaches have been reported.

IGF-1 LR3, also known as LR3-IGF-1, is an elongated and modified version of naturally occurring IGF-1. The naturally occurring 70-amino acid form of activated IGF-1 is essential for normal human growth and development and acts via IGF-1 receptors to exert an anabolic effect to build muscle, which is why IGF-1 is important in bodybuilding. Low IGF-1 peptide levels are linked to poor growth and a number of metabolic disorders. Multiple tissues inside the body produce IGF-1 and its site of synthesis affects its function. The majority of IGF-1 is made by the liver and is transported to other tissues in the bloodstream, acting as an endocrine hormone. Importantly, IGF-1 is a central growth hormone that controls the anabolic growth promoting effect of growth hormone. It also has a growth hormone independent growth-stimulating effect, which is optimized when combined with human growth hormone (HGH). In comparison to IGF-1, IGF-1 LR3 contains 13 extra amino acids and has the amino acid arginine substituted in position 3. These additional amino acids increase the potency of IGF-1 LR3 to three times that of IGF-1 since it has around 1% affinity for IGF-binding proteins, which act to block the growth-promoting effects of IGF-1. The modified IGF-1 LR3 peptide also has improved metabolic stability and remains active in the body for longer than IGF-1. The reduced protein binding and longer half-life means that the peptide is free to promote muscle and bone growth and repair and smooth muscle survival. IGF-I LR3 has been shown to stimulate muscle growth and increase muscle mass by up to 50%. Additionally, IGF’s also modulate how the body utilizes glucose via insulin signaling and can stimulate free fatty acid utilization and fat loss.

IGF-1 LR3 has an extended half-life of between 20 and 30 hours, which is around twice that of unmodified IGF-1. The long half-life means that IGF-1 LR3 only needs to be dosed once per day, either subcutaneously or intramuscularly and will increase lean muscle growth and promote fat reduction and weight loss throughout the whole body. Up to 100 mcg can be dosed each day. A standard IGF-1 LR3 cycle should last four weeks and should be stacked with an anabolic androgenic steroid for optimal results. Side effects of IGF-1 LR3 may include headaches and nausea since the peptide can induce a hypoglycemic state. High levels of this hormone have also been shown to promote organ enlargement, so never exceed the recommended dose of 100 mcg per day. Ibutamoren (MK-677) Ibutamoren is a potent, long-acting,orally active, selective agonist of the ghrelin receptor and a growth hormone secretagogue, mimicking the growth hormone (GH)-stimulating action of the endogenous hormone ghrelin. It has been shown to increase the secretion of several hormones including GH and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and produces sustained increases in the plasma levels of these hormones without affecting cortisol levels.

Ibutamoren has been shown to sustain activation of the GH–IGF-1 axis and to increase lean body mass with no change in total fat mass or visceral fat. It is under investigation as a potential treatment for reduced levels of these hormones, such as in children or elderly adults with growth hormone deficiency, and human studies have shown it to increase both muscle mass and bone mineral density, making it a promising potential therapy for the treatment of frailty in the elderly.

Tesofensine is a serotonin.noradrenaline/dopamine reuptake inhibitor. It acts in the brain to decrease appetite and therefore triggers weight loss. Tesofensine has been proven very effective in the treatment of obesity. Patients in clinical studies have shown lost an average of 12.8kg (i.e. about 10% of body weight) in 6 months, showing tesofensine as one of the most effective weight loss molecules.

PEG MGF refers to pegylated mechano growth factor. This is a spliced variant of the IGF gene that is used by animals to increase their stem cell count within the muscle tissue while encouraging muscle fibers to mature and fuse.

This system is largely used to produce adult muscle as rats mature. The natural version of this peptide is developed where needed and does not travel through the bloodstream; synthetic versions of this chemical have been altered so they may remain stable in the bloodstream for a few minutes. Pegylation refers to the chemical’s ability to attract polyethylene glycol from larger molecules. In this case, the peptide is specifically designed to fuel the breakdown of MGF. PEG molecules can act as a protective coating for the portion of MGF they attract. In theory this would allow MGF to be carried through the bloodstream without being broken down so it can reach its destination more successfully.


5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide or AICAR is an analogue of adenosine monophosphate. The AICAR peptide is a cell penetrable activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a master regulator of metabolic rate that is switched on in times of limited energy availability and works to inhibit anabolic metabolism. Inside the body, activation of AMPK with AICAR imitates that the body is exercising and this triggers insulin-independent glucose uptake by muscle cells. This makes AICAR important for improving endurance and burning stored fat. AICAR was shown to stimulate fat breakdown decades ago and causes cells to move their fat stores into small organelles called mitochondria, where they are broken down to release their stored energy. Animal studies have shown that AICAR can potently activate many metabolic genes to increase exercise endurance. Interestingly, the compound also increased the exercise endurance in sedentary animals. In animals, the compound has also been shown to reduce tissue inflammation and promote the healing of injured and damaged tissue. The use of AICAR in human trials has shown that it can improve glucose regulation in diabetic patients by changing how their bodies respond to glucose, providing evidence that AICAR is useful in prevention and treatment of type II diabetes due to its glucose regulatory properties. Additionally, AICAR has been shown to protecting against cardiac ischemic injury and to improve myocardial protection during heart bypass surgery. Evidence has also shown that AICAR stimulation closely mimics the metabolic changes seen in contracting muscles, even without prior exercise. AICAR also acts as an anti-inflammatory and reduces inflammation by disrupting signaling molecules that cause cells to become activated in mounting an immune response. In conclusion, AICAR is useful for tissue healing, burning fat, stimulating muscle contraction and for reducing inflammation. AICAR is fast acting,but has a short-half life and is rapidly eliminated by the body. AICAR cantherefore be dosed daily. The recommended AICAR dose is 25 mg orally either once or twice perday.


Delta sleep-inducing peptide, abbreviated DSIP, is a neuropeptide that when infused into the mesodiencephalic ventricle of recipient rabbits induces spindle and delta EEG activity and reduced motor activities. It has been found in both free and bound forms in the hypothalamus, limbic system and pituitary as well as various peripheral organs, tissues and body fluids. In the pituitary it co-localizes with many peptide and non-peptide mediators such as corticotropin-like intermediate peptide (CLIP), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and melanin concentrating hormone (MCH). It is abundant in the gut secretory cells and in the pancreas where it co-localises with glucagon.

Epitalon works in the pineal gland of the brain. Its primary role is to increase the natural production of telomerase, a natural enzyme that helps cells reproduce telomeres, which are the protective parts of our DNA. This allows the replication of our DNA, so the body can grow new cells and rejuvenate old ones. It has shown a 33% increase in telomere length in somatic cells. It has many documented effects on general aging and impacts on the circadian rhythm. It promotes a natural cycle and healthy sleep cycles, it also makes sure that cortisol and other stress hormones are not elevated throughout the day, which can lead to excess abdominal weight gain. It helps regulate levels of melatonin and cortisol. It helps make sure cortisol is elevated in the morning and melatonin is elevated in the evening.

Libido/Sexual Dysfunction

Bremelanotide (PT-141)
Bremelanotide was developed from the peptide hormone Melanotan II. In initial testing, Melanotan II did induce tanning but additionally caused sexual arousal and spontaneous erections as unexpected side effects in nine out of the ten original male volunteer test subjects (Ref: Uni of Arizona Dr Hunter Wells) Further testing showed Bremelanotide to induce lordosis and was also effective in treating sexual dysfunction in both men (erectile dysfunction or impotence) and women (sexual arousal disorder). Unlike Viagra and other related medications, it does not act upon the vascular system, but directly increases sexual desire via the nervous system.

Melanotan and Melanotan II are both analogs of the peptide hormone alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (a-MSH) inducing skin tanning. Like its predecessor, Melanotan I, MT 2 plays a role in stimulating melanogenesis and thus providing a protective mechanism against UV rays since under its actions melanocytes are able to increase production and secretion of hormone melanin. Scientists were also able to notice another characteristic of this compound. MT 2 had a positive effect on libido due to its aphrodisiac properties. Scientists also found MT 2 had a mild positive fat-mobilizing effect.


VIP (Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide)
Evidence has accumulated since 2008 that intranasal, topical application of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) can be administered safely to patients with a multi-system, multi-symptom illness, called chronic inflammatory response syndrome (CIRS), acquired following exposure to biologically produced toxins and inflammagens. To date, over 300 physicians have prescribed intranasal VIP for their CIRS patients; these physicians have overwhelmingly (>90%) reported intranasal VIP to reduce symptoms; reduce elevated levels of MMP9, TGF beta-1 and C4a; raise low levels of VEGF; normalize clotting abnormalities, including acquired von Willebrand’s; and return regulation to pituitary systemic axes involving ACTH/cortisol and ADH/osmolality. These changes did not occur without use of VIP, though antecedent steps in a sequential treatment protocol provided benefit for many patients. The mechanism of these salutary health effects provided by VIP likely involves correction of abnormalities in ribosomal gene activation, nuclear encoded mitochondrial gene activation and an upregulation of Ikaros, a zinc fingered transcription factor. Recent preliminary work using sequential measurement of CNS volumes by NeuroQuant showed a longer treatment window (> 12 weeks) and higher doses of VIP (> 6 doses/day) safely corrected multinuclear atrophy of grey matter. The current study built upon this preliminary work and identified a course of VIP treatment that restores grey matter nuclear atrophy in CIRS patients. Safety of VIP and durability of benefit were both shown with no significant adverse effects reported by any patients.


ARA 290
ARA290, a peptide designed to activate the innate repair receptor that arrests injury and initiates cytoprotection, anti-inflammation, and healing, reduces allodynia in preclinical neuropathy models.

ARA 290 is a synthetic 11-amino acid peptide IRR agonist. It is currently being assessed in the clinical developmental program for its ability to relieve symptoms related with sarcoidosis SFN and for the potential for disease modification and long-term functional enhancement in this condition.


This peptide has been shown in numerous studies to have potent anti-inflammatory properties and also to inhibit the formation of tumors in the body. It is applied topically to the skin and has been shown to be particularly effective in the skin condition called Psoriasis, which is considered an autoimmune disease. Because of its anti-inflammatory activity, KPV seems to benefit patients who have many other autoimmune conditions, which have in common an inflammatory process which attacks different areas of the body depending upon which particular condition is manifesting itself. One study published in Endocrinolgy Review 2008, discusses it in Future Perspectives for the Treatment of Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Disease.

Amlexanox is an anti-inflammatory and antiallergic compound which has traditionally been used to treat ulcers by reducing healing time and pain. It has multiple mechanisms of action such as inhibiting inflammation by inhibiting the release of histamine and leukotrienes. It has been shown to selectively inhibit TBK1 and IKK-ε, producing reversible weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity, It is through this mechanism that it has produced substantial results in terms of reducing HbA1C levels and increase insulin sensitivity.


Kisspeptin, made in the hypothalamus, is an important hormone that starts the release of several other hormones. Also called metastin, this interesting hormone is connected to puberty and may also help stop the spread of cancer.

Kisspeptin enters into receptor sites in the pituitary gland, starting a reaction that causes the gland to release neurotransmitters. Those neurotransmitters then signal the release of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone. These hormones have a role to play in the production of testosterone and oestradiol. Without kisspeptin, this entire chain reaction would be damaged.


Rapamycin [Sirolimus]
Senescent cells contribute to age-related pathology and loss of function, and their selective removal improves physiology and extends longevity. We have shown that deficiency in Nrf2 in young Nrf2KO mice leads to an increase in senescent cells, with increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in various tissues, including the brain. Both the cellular senescence and SASP decrease significantly when these mice are treated with rapamycin. Our current work focuses on determining whether cellular senescence contributes to premature AD-like pathogenesis in mouse models of AD. Indeed, it has been shown that Nrf2 deficiency in mouse models for AD leads to exacerbated pathology, suggesting that increased inflammation, due in part to the increased SASP-producing senescent cells, might be contribute to this phenotype. We are testing whether the burden of senescent cells in the brain on mouse models of AD can be reverted by rapamycin.

FOX04 is a member if a larger group that produce transcription factor proteins that are important for growth and differentiation. The FOX04 protein is modified in normal biology by post-translational activities. These modifications alter DNA binding affinity of FOX04 and thus allow it to regulate a host of cellular pathways such as oxidative stress signaling, cellular senescence, apoptosis, insulin signaling, and the cell cycle itself.

FOX04 D-Retro-Inverso is identical to the protein product of the FOX04 gene, but the normal L amino acids have been exchanged for D amino acids. The result is that FOX04-DRI has reduced susceptibility to normal physiologic clearance mechanisms and thus remains in the body for longer periods of time. The modified protein is still capable, however, of affecting transcription and cellular pathways. In general, the FOX04-DRI protein interferes with the normal FOX04 function.

Of greatest interest in terms of aging and senescence is the ability of FOX04-DRI to interfere with normal FOX04 signaling in the cell cycle by preventing the binding of FOX04 to p53. The p53 protein is an important regulator of progression through the cell cycle as well as programmed cell death (apoptosis). When FOX04-DRI binds to p53, it prevents FOX04 from binding and allows p53 to bind to DNA. This, in turn, allows the cell to continue through the process of apoptosis and die. Interesting, FOX04-DRI appears to only have this effect in senescent cells, cells that are no longer functional or are dysfunctional as a result of aging. By targeting these dysfunctional cells, FOX04-DRI helps to rid tissue of cells that are nothing but dead weight. This, in turn, allows for better tissue functioning and helps to stimulate growth and differentiation to younger, healthier cells. The net result is better biological function and thus a decrease in “biological age”.


DHH-B (Dihydrohonokiol)
DHH-B is a natural anxiety medicine that is made from the bark of the magnolia tree. If you haven’t heard of magnolia bark, you’re not alone. It’s flown just under the radar of natural medicine trends, but it is has been a powerful traditional medicine for centuries. Its bioactive compounds have been shown to address conditions from inflammation to weight management, brain health, better sleep, stress reduction, and (most importantly for this discussion) anxiety. Magnolia bark, and the powerful extracts from it, have been shown to address anxiety in similar ways to benzodiazepines without the unwanted side effects. It works in several ways. First, Magnolia bark boosts GABA, which is a neurotransmitter that exerts a calming effect. Second, it activates cannabinoid receptors, which in turn helps to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and elevate mood, among many other benefits. Third, Magnolia bark is an adrenaline inhibitor. Bioactive compounds in magnolia bark can reduce adrenaline, a hormone strongly associated with stress, which stimulates vigilance and alertness. Other research indicates magnolia bark may suppress unhealthful levels of cortisol, another significant stress-related hormone. Fourth, it has high antioxidant properties that lower levels of inflammation and oxidative stress in the brain and throughout the body.


The hepatic uptake of LDL is highly regulated. The LDL receptor (LDL-R) present on hepatocytes mediates the endocytosis of LDL and thus regulates the plasma level of the lipoprotein and cholesterol. In the acidic environment of the endosome, the LDL-R dissociates from its ligand and recycles back to the cell surface for further uptake of LDL. Apo E is an alternate ligand for the LDL-R and mediates the clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins such as chylomicron remnants and VLDL (2). ApoE also binds to additional hepatic receptors such as LDL-R related protein (LRP) and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG). Like apoE, Ac-hE18A-NH2 and its variants can reduce plasma cholesterol and displays anti-inflammatory properties in model animals. Ac-hE18A-NH2 has already undergone phase 1 clinical trials as a lipid-lowering agent. In a recent study, the myristyl peptide variant of ApoE has been shown to reduce total and LDL cholesterol (even under severe dyslipidemic conditions) in apoE-null mice. As a result, it is though myristyl can act as an alternative to statins and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Additionally, because of its enhanced potency at lower doses, myristyl has great therapeutic potential to lower cholesterol.


PE 22-28
Seven years ago, we described spadin (PE 12-28) as a promising endogenous peptide with antidepressant activity. Spadin specifically blocks the TREK-1 channel. Previously, we showed in vivo that, spadin activity disappeared beyond 7 h after administration. In order to improve in vivo spadin stability and bioavailability, we screened spadin analogs and derivatives. From the study of spadin blood degradation products, we designed a 7 amino-acid peptide, PE 22-28. In vitro studies on hTREK-1/HEK cells by using patch-clamp technique, showed that PE 22-28 displayed a better specificity and affinity for TREK-1 channel compared to spadin, IC50 of 0.12 nM vs. 40–60 nM for spadin. In the same conditions, we also pointed out that different modifications of its N or C-terminal ends maintained or abolished TREK-1 channel activity without affecting PE 22-28 affinity. In vivo, the antidepressant properties of PE 22-28 and its derivatives were demonstrated in behavioral models of depression, such as the forced swimming test. Mice treated with spadin-analogs showed a significant reduction of the immobility time. Moreover, in the novelty suppressed feeding test after a 4-day sub-chronic treatment PE 22-28 reduced significantly the latency to eat the food pellet. PE 22-28 and its analogs were able to induce neurogenesis after only a 4-day treatment with a prominent effect of the G/A-PE 22-28. On mouse cortical neurons, PE 22-28 and its derivatives enhanced synaptogenesis measured by the increase of PSD-95 expression level. Finally, the action duration of PE 22-28 and its analogs was largely improved in comparison with that of spadin, up to 23 h instead of 7 h. Taken together, our results demonstrated that PE 22-28 and its derivatives represent other promising molecules that could be an alternative to spadin in the treatment of depression.

Hair Restoration Peptides

PTD-DBM (use with Valproic acid dispensed separately)
PTD-DBM which is short for Protein transduction domain (PTD)-Dvl-binding motif (DBM). In simple terms, it is a follicle regeneration treatment. More specifically, it is a peptide-based topical scalp treatment which inhibits the follicle shrinking action of the body’s hormones and enzymes effectively rescuing the follicle at a stem cell level. Treatment with PTD-DBM both prevents hair loss and promotes the growth of new hair follicles.

Many researchers believe that WNT signaling pathways inside of a cell are responsible for hair follicle development and hair regeneration in humans. These pathways are usually made of proteins and they communicate important cell activity and growth signals to various cells throughout our body.

Copper peptides are naturally occurring small protein fragments that have high affinity to copper ions. In human plasma, the level of GHK-Cu is about 200 µg/ml at age 20. By the age of 60, the level drops to 80 µg/ml. In humans, tripeptide GHK-Cu can promote activation of wound healing, attraction of immune cells, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, stimulation of collagen and glycosaminoglycan synthesis in skin fibroblasts and promotion of blood vessels growth. Recent studies revealed its ability to modulate expression of a large number of human genes, generally reversing gene expression to a healthier state. Synthetic GHK-Cu is used in cosmetics as a reparative and anti-aging ingredient.

Zinc Thymulin
Zinc Thymulin (ZT) is used to regenerate hair lost as a result of androgenic alopecia. Hair loss occurs in a large percentage of the adult human population and increases in prevalence with increasing age. Hair loss may occur in males and in females but is more prevalent in males. In the western population it is estimated that 50% of the male population have noticeable hair loss by 50 years of age. The most common form of hair loss in men is termed androgenetic alopecia (male pattern baldness). Most hair loss involves inactivation of hair follicles, that is, hair follicles cease to grow hair. Literature also suggests that the thinning of the fat scalp layer due to age can contribute to hair loss through inactivation of the stem cells which regulate hair growth. A deficiency of Zinc will also lead to hair loss.

Zinc and thymulin are two natural compounds involved in hair follicle growth and have been studied and found to promote hair growth. Combined into a spray solution, ZT can be applied to the scalp and treat hair loss, bald patches and as well as initiate the angen hair growth phase (the active growth phase of hair follicles during which the root of the hair is dividing rapidly).